Design and Analysis of an Intelligent Integrity Checking Watermarking Scheme for Ubiquitous Database Access

Saad Mohamed Darwish(1*), Hosam A. Selim(2),

(1) Department of Information Technology, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University
(2) Department of Information Technology Institute of Graduate Studies &Research, Alexandria University,
(*) Corresponding Author


As a result of the highly distributed nature of ubiquitous database accessing, it is essential to develop security mechanisms that lend themselves well to the delicate properties of outsourcing databases integrity and copyright protection. Researchers have begun to study how watermarking computing can make ubiquitous databases accessing more confident work environments. One area where database context may help is in supporting content integrity. Initially, most of the research effort in this field was depending on distortion based watermark while the few remaining studies concentrated on distortion-free. But there are many disadvantages in previous studies; most notably some rely on adding watermark as an extra attributes or tuples, which increase the size of the database. Other techniques such as permutation and abstract interpretation framework require much effort to verify the watermark. The idea of this research is to adapt an optimized distortion free watermarking based on fake tuples that are embedded into a separate file not within the database to validate the content integrity for ubiquitous database accessing. The proposed system utilizes the GA, which boils down its role to create the values of the fake tuples as watermark to be the closest to real values. So that it's very hard to any attacker to guess the watermark. The proposed technique achieves more imperceptibility and security. Experimental outcomes confirm that the proposed algorithm is feasible, effective and robust against a large number of attacks.


Ubiquitous database accessing, Distortion free watermarking, Genetic algorithm, intelligent Content Integrity mechanism

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 37 times


Y. Li, H. Guo, and S. Jajodia, “Tamper Detection and Localization for Categorical Data using Fragile Watermarks”, ACM workshop on Digital Rights Management, pp. 73-82, 2004.

R. Agrawal, P. J. Haas, and J. Kiernan, “Watermarking Relational Data: Framework, Algorithms and Analysis”, Very Large Data Bases Journal, 12(2):157-169, 2003.

R. Agrawal, and J. Kiernan, "Watermarking Relational Databases", Very Large Database Conference, pp. 155-166, 2002.

B. Mehta, and U. Rao, “A Novel approach as Multi-place Watermarking for Security in Database”, International Conference on Security and Management, pp. 703-707, 2011.

Z. Lei, and R. Li, “Research of Applications in Relational Database on Digital Watermarking Technology”, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2(9):84-89, 2013.

S. Bilapatte, S. Bhattacharya, and S. Sawarkar, “A Review on Watermarking Relational Databases”, International Journal of Applied Engineering, 4(2):89-96, 2014.

M. Rathva, and G. Sahani, “Watermarking Relational Databases”, International Journal of Computer Science, Engineering and Applications, 3(1):71-79, 2013.

P. Singh, and R. Chadha, "A Survey of Digital Watermarking Techniques Applications and Attacks", International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, 2(9):165-175, 2013.

S. Bhattacharya, and A. Cortesi, "A Distortion Free Watermark Framework for Relational Databases", International Conference on Software and Data Technologies, pp. 229-234, 2009.

S. Bhattacharya, and A. Cortesi, "A Generic Distortion Free Watermarking Technique for Relational Databases", International Conference on Information Systems Security, pp. 252-264, 2009.

S. Bhattacharya, and A. Cortesi, "Distortion-Free Authentication Watermarking", International Conference of Software and Data Technologies, pp. 205–219, 2010.

M. Li, and W. Zhao, “An Asymmetric Watermarking Scheme for Relational Database”, International Conference on Communication Software and Networks, pp. 180–184, 2011.

R. Arun, K. Praveen, D. Bose, and H. Nath, “A Distortion Free Relational Database Watermarking using Patch Work Method”, International Conference on Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications, pp. 531-538, , 2012.

V. Pournaghshband, “A New Watermarking Approach for Relational Data”, Annual Southeast Regional Conference, pp. 127-131, 2008.

N. Zawawi, R. El-Gohary, M. Hamdy, and M. Tolba, "A Novel Watermarking Approach for Data Integrity and Non-repudiation in Rational Databases", International Conference on Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications, pp.532-542, 2012.

H. El-Bakry, and N. Mastorakis, "A New Watermark Approach for Protection of Databases", Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Informatics and Communications, pp. 243-248, Russia, 2009.

H. El-Bakry, and M. Hamada, “A Novel Watermark Technique for Relational Databases”, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, pp. 226-232, 2010.

H. El-Bakry, and M. Hamada, “A Developed Watermark Technique for Distributed Database Security”, International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems, pp. 173-180, 2010.

G. Gamal, M. Rashad, and M. Mohamed, “A Simple Watermark Technique for Relational Database”, International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Information Science, 8(1):92-101, 2008.

S. Bhattacharya and A. Cortesi, "Database Authentication by Distortion Free Watermarking", International Conference on Software and Data Technologies, pp. 219-226, 2010.

I. Kamel, “A schema for Protecting the Integrity of Databases”, Computers and Security, 28(7):698-709, 2009.

H. Wu, F. Hsu, and H. Chen, “Tamper Detection of Relational Database Based on SVR Predictive Difference”, International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, pp. 403-408, 2008.

A. Hamadou, X. Sun, L. Gao, and S. A. Shah, "A Fragile Zero-Watermarking Technique for Authentication of Relational Databases", International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, 5(5):189 – 200, 2011.

L. Camara, J. Li, R. Li, and W. Xie, "Distortion-Free Watermarking Approach for Relational Database Integrity Checking", Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2014(1):1–10, 2014.

S. Iqbal, A. Rauf, H. Javed, and S. Ahmad, "Distortion Free Algorithm to Handle Secondary Watermark Attack in Relational Databases", European Conference on Information Management, pp. 214-221, 2011.

A. Mayekar, M. Jha, S. Mule, and C. Shridattopasak, "Relational Database Watermarking", International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2(7):248-252, 2014.

M. Kamran, S. Suhail, and M. Farooq, “A Robust, Distortion Minimizing Technique for Watermarking Relational Databases using Once-for-all Usability Constraints”, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 25(12):2694 – 2707, 2013.

R. Radha, K. Sankari, and S. Devi, “Implementation of Invisible Watermarking Technique in Relational Database”, International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 7(4):10034-10037, 2016.

S. Sonupriya, and R. Rani, “The Digital Watermarking Technique for Numerical Relational Databases”, International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science, 3(9):14-21, 2014.

S. Panimalar, and D. Srinath, “Reversible Watermarking Technique based on Time stamping in Relational Data”, International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science, 2(1):961-967, 2015.

S. Waichal, M. Bhandure, U. Waghmare, B. Meshram, “Watermarking Databases”, Journal of Engineering, Computers & Applied Sciences, 2(6):81-88, 2013.

V. Khanduja, O. Verma, S. Chakraverty, “Watermarking Relational Databases using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm”, International Journal of Multimedia Tools and Applications, 74(3):813-839, 2015.

S. Melkundi, C. Chandankhede, “A Robust Technique for Relational Database Watermarking and Verification”, International Conference on Communication, Information & Computing Technology, pp. 1-7, 2015.

L. Camara, J. Li, R. Li, F. Kagorora, and D. Hanyurwimfura, “Block-Based Scheme for Database Integrity Verification”, International Journal of Security and its Applications, 8(6):25-40, 2014.

V. Khanduja, S. Chakraverty, and O. Verma, “Watermarking Categorical Data: Algorithm and Robustness Analysis”, Defense Science Journal, 65(3):226-232, 2015.

X. Cui, X., G. Sheng, and J. Zheng, "A Robust Algorithm for Watermark Numeric Relational Databases", Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, 344(1):810-815, 2006.

K. Jawad, and A. Khan, “Genetic Algorithm and Difference Expansion based Reversible Watermarking for Relational Databases”, Journal of Systems and Software, 86(11): 2742-2753, 2013.


Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research


Organized by : Departemen Teknik Informatika STMIK Dharma Wacana
Published by : STMIK Dharma Wacana
Jl. Kenanga No.03 Mulyojati 16C Metro Barat Kota Metro Lampung
phone. +62725-7850671
Fax. +62725-7850671

statcounter International Journal of artificial intelligence research

Creative Commons License
IJAIR is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.